This is Jupiter's satellite (II) EUROPA, in relation to Jupiter, at 21h 45 UT, JUNE 21.

Graphic generated using 'Celestia' software

FRIDAY, JUNE 22, 2018


JUNE, OX EYE DAISY (Moon Daisy) in full flower, around the time of the Summer Solstice.



Illustrations of Saturn and its fascinating moon ENCELADUS, thought to be a possible abode of life, as is Jupiter's satellite Europa.

CONFIGURATION OF THE GALILEAN SATELLITES OF JUPITER may be seen, for late evening, towards the bottom of this page also.

SKYNOTES are available. Use The MENU above for MAY, JUNE, JULY and AUGUST, 2018 SKYNOTES.

ADDED : ASTRONOMICAL POEMS PAGE: Please use the MENU to find this new page


If you wish to use any of the material in John's Skynotes (see MENU, above.) please feel free to do so; I would, however appreciate you please sharing the URL of my website, so that others may use it too --- Thank you

ADDED: THE PATH OF DWARF PLANET VESTA (4) The location chart may be found on the ASTEROID Page, accessible via the MENU above.


INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION and IRIDIUM FLARE SATELLITES' VISIBILITY For information about suitable times to see the ISS, other satellites, and interesting objects, and to download the application if you wish, go to the following admirable site:


ISS - Visible passes from SCARBOROUGH: The international Space Station has the appearance of a bright star moving across the sky from west to east. it is often around the same brightness as Jupiter, (the fourth brightest celestial object in the sky after the Sun, Moon, and Venus).

Date Brightness Start Highest point End Pass type
(mag) Time Alt. Az. Time Alt. Az. Time Alt. Az.
06 Jul -1.3 02:43:02 10° SSE 02:43:53 11° SE 02:44:43 10° SE visible
08 Jul -1.9 02:32:36 10° SSW 02:34:54 18° SSE 02:37:14 10° ESE visible
09 Jul -1.6 01:41:33 11° SSE 01:42:37 12° SE 01:44:03 10° ESE visible
10 Jul -2.6 02:23:22 11° SSW 02:25:59 27° SSE 02:28:50 10° E visible
11 Jul -2.2 01:32:31 17° S 01:33:35 20° SSE 01:36:05 10° E visible
12 Jul -1.7 00:41:38 14° SE 00:41:38 14° SE 00:43:02 10° ESE visible
12 Jul -3.2 02:14:14 12° SW 02:17:05 38° SSE 02:20:11 10° E visible
13 Jul -2.9 01:23:18 22° SSW 01:24:37 30° SSE 01:27:32 10° E visible
14 Jul -2.4 00:32:19 22° SSE 00:32:19 22° SSE 00:34:47 10° E visible
14 Jul -3.6 02:05:01 10° WSW 02:08:11 49° S 02:11:23 10° E visible
14 Jul -1.5 23:41:15 12° ESE 23:41:15 12° ESE 23:41:50 10° ESE visible
15 Jul -3.4 01:13:51 21° SW 01:15:39 41° SSE 01:18:46 10° E visible
15 Jul -3.6 02:48:39 10° W 02:51:52 52° S 02:55:04 10° ESE visible


IRIDIUM FLARE SATELLITES: These are Communication Satellites with highly reflective solar panels. When the Sun catches one of these, there is a bright star-like burst, which lasts only a moment, but can be very noticeable and startling!

Time Brightness Altitude Azimuth Satellite Distance to flare centre Brightness at flare centre Sun altitude
Jun 16, 21:54:29 -0.6 13° 305° (NW) Iridium 10 129 km (E) -5.3 -8° 
Jun 16, 22:03:50 -5.0 11° 308° (NW) Iridium 54 24 km (W) -5.1 -8° 
Jun 16, 22:33:27 0.1 46° 253° (WSW) Iridium 41 50 km (E) -7.9 -10° 
Jun 17, 21:56:21 0.6 11° 309° (NW) Iridium 12 229 km (E) -5.1 -8° 
Jun 18, 01:28:34 -6.8 36° 313° (NW) Iridium 76 7 km (E) -7.4 -10° 
Jun 19, 22:24:29 -2.3 42° 260° (W) Iridium 98 26 km (E) -7.7 -9° 
Jun 21, 01:15:09 -2.3 31° 317° (NW) Iridium 76 24 km (E) -7.1 -11° 
Jun 22, 02:51:36 -8.2 61° 292° (WNW) Iridium 60 2 km (E) -8.3 -4° 
Jun 22, 21:46:24 -5.3 42° 36° (NE) Iridium 75 5 km (W) -8.1 -7° 
Jun 22, 22:15:33 -7.4 38° 267° (W) Iridium 80 1 km (E) -7.4 -9° 


WELCOME to JONVRAN.CO.UK, John's simple astronomy site where you will find information about what is happening in the night sky from the point of view of SCARBOROUGH in the United Kingdom, Latitude 54 deg. 17 minutes NORTH, Longitude 00 deg. 25 minutes WEST,(Situated on the East Coast, midway between LONDON and EDINBURGH, and Mainland Britain); as well as what I hope are other interesting bits and pieces, of use to everyone. You can contact me using the form in the CONTACT area, should you wish to do so.


Historically these 'Skynotes' are a direct cyber-descendent, of the paper skynotes I prepared, for many years, by hand, for members, at each meeting of the Scarborough Astronomical Society from the moment the Society began in 1976. In those days, I produced all the illustrations including the star charts by hand, but now, with the advent of excellent Astronomy software programs, I am able to use much better graphics, for which I thank the many programmers who have produced these wonderful software gems. In the CREDITS section you will find a list of these amazing sources that allow me to continue to produce my 'Skynotes', for the benefit of all.

It does not seem that they have been produced continuously for 40 years, but as the latin inscription tells us: TEMPVS FVGIT ! (Time Flies!)

There are many 'pages' in this new version of 'SKYNOTES'. They are listed in the MENU at the top of the page. May you find within them something of interest, and may I, here, express my gratitude to the many people who have already visited, this, my small contribution towards the popularisation of Astronomy, which has been my lifelong aim.</p> <p>I would also like to thank the various presenters, past and present, of BBC Radio York, for letting me have regular night sky slots since the Radio Station began, many moons ago. A 'thank you' also to the other local radio stations, who put up with me, paRticularly when I forget what I was talking about, having gone off at a 'tangent' (= digression). These include: Yorkshire Coast Radio and Radio Scarborough, a good local Internet station, BBC Radio Leeds, Radio 5 Live, and Radio 4. A special thanks to Trish,the producer and Paul Hudson for giving me a seasonal 'slot' on Paul's Weather Show which is broadcast over a number of neighbouring local BBC radio stations. My thanks to you all!

I reserve a special thanks for the late Senior English Master, at Normanton Grammar School, Mr T Hewson, who made me stand up in class during English on Tuesday afternoons, and read aloud several pages of Gulliver's Travels, despite the difficulties I had in reading words. Thanks to him, I can now read properly and he taught me confidence to share my love of Astronomy with all to whom I am invited to speak and teach.

It is my hope that you will enjoy these pages, and return here often to take what you will from this site, as the months change, the result of Earth's journey around the sun. May you too, always follow safe paths, and have clear and unclouded skies

John Harper. F.R.A.S.



"'MOON MAGIC' --- A poem by Pamela Tennant (I learned this, as a junior school child, at the Church of England Primary School in Normanton, West Yorkshire, England.

'One day when father and I had been
To sell our sheep at Berwick Green;
We reached the farmhouse late at night,
A great Moon rising round and bright.
Her strange beams shed on all around,
Bewitched the trees and streams and ground;
Changing the Willows beyond the stacks,
To Little old men with crouching backs.
Today the Sun was shining plain,
Theu all were Pollard willows again;
But at night, do you believe they're trees?
They're little old men with twisted knees!'

My interest in Astronomy began as a child, when I saw the feature called 'The Man in the Moon', for the first time (so I am told!). Several years later my father bought me a book called 'The Starry Heavens' by Ellison Hawks F.R.A.S., followed a Christmas later by another book, 'Introducing Astronomy' by J.B Sidgewick F.R.A.S.. With this book and a torch, I went out at night and looked at the starry skies to identify the constellations, and learned, with delight, the stories of these 'Star Patterns'. Then on Tuesday nights, around 7.30pm , after rushing through my Normanton Grammar School homework, I listened with great excitement to the serial dramatisation of Charles Chilton's novel ' 'Journey Into Space --Operation Luna!', Around the same time, on BBC's Children's Hour, there was the dramatisation of 'The Lost Planet' series of books, written by Angus McVicar, which told of an expedition to Hesikos, the peaceful planet,where the flowers known as 'Charity', boomed in profusion. these two launched me, well and truly, to the stars! My journey had begun!

After being a member of the Batley and Spenborough Astronomical Society for a number of years, during the time I had my first teaching post at The Cathedral City High School in Wakefield (West Yorkshire), I started the school's astronomical society. Ten years later in 1975, I came to Scarborough, as Head of Religious Studies at Scalby School and founded SCARBOROUGH ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, because I discovered that there wasn't one; although later, I found that in the past, the Scarborough Philosophical Society had an astronomy 'branch' for a while.

I am a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, a member the British Astronomical Association and the Society for Popular Astronomy. These are the three main national astronomical societies. As a member of the Society for Popular Astronomy, I became the Director of the Occultation Observing Section, and introduced the observing and timing of asteroidal occultations. When I gave up that post, because of optical problems, I was honoured by the S.P.A. who made me a honorary life member. Now, as one of Pamela Tennant's 'little old men with twisted knees' I do my best to observe from my observatory in the 'back yard'. I try to give opportunities for people to look at the night sky when special events take place up there, beyond our atmosphere; and, of course, to produce these 'Skynotes' in the hope that they are of some use to those who like me, a long time ago,.... go out on clear nights to discover, as I did, the wonders of our night skies. In these ways I am able to say 'thank you' to my life long hobby of Astronomy, which, in my opinion, is the noblest of all the sciences!

LOOKING SOUTH at 23h UT. (00h BST)
JULY 01, 2018.

Generated using: 'Stellarium' software by Fabien Chereau
The constellation art is the excellent work of Johan Meuris
Click to enlarge if necessary.

LOOKING WEST at 21h UT. (22h BST)
JULY 01, 2018.

Tap to enlarge if needs be.

MOON PHASE: WAXING GIBBOUS Appearance at: 23h UT. JUNE 21 in UK. (00h BST).


The small 'arrow', if present on the image, indicates the point on the Moon's limb, where the greatest LIBRATION (tilt towards the Earth) on the Moon's limb (edge of disc), is taking place. The size of the arrow is indicative of the amount of Libration.

Generated using 'Stellarium' and 'Virtual Moon Atlas' software.

JUNE 21 at 23h UT. ( = 00h BST).

The Moon's position upon the Celestial Sphere.


Note the effect of LIBRATION (limb tilt towards Earth) by comparing the two images!

Moon Map generated by Virtual Moon Atlas, Moon Maps, and GUIDE 9 Software.

Selected lunar occultations visible from Scarborough UK. JUNE 24 OCCULTATION of m(v)+5.41 star (44) Eta Librae.
Disappearance is due at 32h 29h UT. (00h 39 BST) from SCARBOROUGH, UK

(GUIDE 9 Software)

THE SECOND MIDSUMMER FULL MOON is on JUNE 28. at 04h 54m UT This is the lowest FULL MOON of the year.

SOLAR POSITION at 12h UT. JUNE 22, 2018.
Sun in the constellation of GEMINI.

'Now is the Sun upon the top-most peak of Heaven's Hill!'

The northern SUMMER SOLSTICE was on JUNE 21 at 10h 08 UT.
At this time, northern astronomical SUMMER began. In the southern hemisphere it was the start of WINTER.

REMEMBER ------- NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN unless you have the proper astronomical filters for the purpose, NOT the one often provided by the telescope manufacturer. IT IS SAFER TO PROJECT THE SUN'S IMAGE ONTO A SCREEN. Never look through view finders at the sun. instead look at the shadow of the instrument on a card. When the shadow is as small as it can be, it is pointing towards the sun, and you will see the safe image of the Sun on the card. NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN------ IT CAN BLIND YOU !

The SUN'S PHOTOSPHERE in visible light. (Equatorial Period of Rotation = 25.38 days.)
Courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.

The SUN has been free of major Sunspot groups for a considerable length of time now, for several years in fact! In the past when there have been prolonged minima like this, the result on Earth has been of short periods of global cooling resulting in mini- ice ages. There was one in the times of Charles Dickens when the Thames froze over in London and people held ice fairs on the river! Several astronomers feel that there is a distinct possibility of this happening again soon!

The next SOLAR ECLIPSE visible from the U.K. is on :
2018 August 11, 08h 45 UT
Only the far North of Scotland, together with the Shetland and Orkney Islands, will see anything of this eclipse. It is a very minor affair, and only a tiny notch will be taken out of the Sun’s upper left limb, between 08h 30 and 09h00. At Kirkwall, a mere 1.5% of the Sun is covered, increasing to 6% at Lerwick, in the Shetland Isles.

SCARBOROUGH - SCARBOROUGH, NORTH BAY. Mid-June at Sunset. Image by kind permission of @FeelBetter2day. Thanks Linda.

SUNRISE- SUNSET. Thanks Stuart K.R.



SUNRISE: 04h 27 SUNSET: 21h 39

MOONRISE: 15h 21 MOONSET: 02h 03




HIGH: 00h 10,

LOW: 06h 18,

HIGH: 12h 23,

LOW: 19h 07,



The times given are for LOCAL TIME (BRITISH SUMMER TIME (Please note : the times given here are simply a guide to give an impression of the approximate time of HIGH and LOW water, in Scarborough's two bays and must not be relied upon to be completely accurate). This section is basically for people who like to walk on the beach and to inform whether the tide is in or out, visually.

The images of Scarborough on this page are produced by Scarborough residents, who have given me their permission to use, so that you may see how beautiful our town is, through all the changing seasons of the year. My grateful thanks to them all.

SCARBOROUGH, NORTH BAY. Mid-June Sunset. Image by kind permission of @FeelBetter2day. Thanks Linda, a lovely image!


The times when ALGOL (Beta Persei), the famous eclipsing variable star reaches its MINIMUM brightness may be found in the monthly SKYNOTES summary for each month. The star has a page dedicated to itself also, accessible via the MENU above

JUPITER'S GALILEAN SATELLITES. Their daily changing configuration in relation to Jupiter. The daily configuration graphic may be seen below;

NOCTILUCENT CLOUDS: See the Illustration below for information.

VENUS on JULY 01 at 21h UT (22h BST) (ZENITH is up). Distance from Earth = 1.054 AU. (1 AU = mean Sun -Earth Distance).

The image will be inverted in an astronomical telescope!)

Generated using 'Stellarium' software

JUPITER and the GALILEAN SATELLITES: The configuration above is as you would see in binoculars, at 21h 00 UT (add 1 hour for BST), on JUNE 21, looking SOUTH. (In an astronomical telescope, the view will be inverted, and in some, reversed.). A telescope is necessary to see the atmospheric belts and zones in the planet's atmosphere.
The satellites are: I = IO, II = EUROPA, III = GANYMEDE, and IV = CALLISTO.

(Graphics: Stellarium.)

ENCELADUS, (diam: 504 km) Satellite of SATURN, and the Jovian moon, EUROPA, (diam: 3100 km) Satellite of JUPITER, both have warm water oceans under their icy surfaces, and the basic ingredients for Life. This picture shows ENCELADUS against the 'backcloth' of Saturn.JULY at 00h 00 UT.

Images generated using CELESTIA software.


JUPITER WAS IN OPPOSITION on MAY 09, 2018. Try to spot the Zones and Belts of the CLOUD DECK through a small astronomical telescope..
JOVIAN ROTATION PERIOD = 9.8 hours (0.41 of Earth Day)


NOCTILUCENT CLOUDS. During the Summer months, look out for Noctilucent Clouds, which are thought to be produced as a result of meteors passing through the upper atmosphere. These thin high clouds of ice crystals still catch the light of the sun, which even at midnight is not far below the northern horizon. Their appearance is that of silvery blue veils low in the northern sky, and may be seen an hour before and after midnight, often with interesting textures and patterns.

The Flag of NORTH YORKSHIRE UK --- The colours reflect the agricultural nature of the county (Green), the sea, and rivers (Blue) ;and the coastline (Yellow), together with the White Rose emblem of Yorkshire.
YORKSHIRE DAY is celebrated on AUGUST 01

SUNSET AT WHITBY (Borough of Scarborough)
Around the time of the Summer Solstice, the Sun rises and SETS over the North Sea at Whitby. Photo by me (John Harper), several years ago